……. …….. …….. ……. ….. ……. ……. ….. ……… …….. ……. …..



























The Kazakh State Research Institute for

Scientific and Technical Information





























Analytical review











Almaty 2003






UDC.. 3

Introduction. 4

General characteristics of the region. 4

Criteria and indicators of sustainable development 7

Economy of the region. 7

Ecological situation in the region. 9

State of the population health of Atyrau and Atyrau district 12

Recommendations for increasing the stability of the regional development 15

Supplement 22





Granovsky E.I. Problems of sustainable development of the Atyrau city and of the Atyrau region:

Analyt. Review. – Almaty: KazgosINTI, 2003. - p


The present work is carried out on the initiative and with the financial support of the UNESCO Custer Office in Almaty.


In the review different aspects of sustainable development of the Atyrau city and of the Atyrau region are considered, the south part of which is located in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

The general characteristics of the region are cited, criteria and indicators of sustainable development are characterized, main trends of economy and ecological situation in the region are described, the indices of state of the population health are given, and recommendations for increasing the sustainable development of the region are systematically laid out.

The review is prepared within the framework of the Coastal Regions and Small Islands platform (CSI) of UNESCO using material collected from research publications, data of the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for statistics, information obtained from Internet and form mass media.

It is intended for a wide range of readers including specialists of state administration bodies, ecologists, medical workers, research workers and workers of public and non-governmental organizations.


Bibliog. 54 Tabl.1





With KazgosINTI, 2003





The sustainable development of a specific city, region or whole state presupposes such development that provides economic growth, reduces the ecological load on the environment and satisfies the needs of society without detriment to the following generations.

Thus the most important aspects of concept of sustainable development are economic, ecological and social ones.

Indices such as employment rate, migration of the population, demography, per capita GDP, indices of development of industry and agriculture, ecology and health of the population all serve as indicators of sustainable development.

For Kazakhstan the sustainable development of Atyrau region is of a specific importance for the following reasons. Not only are large reserves of oil and gas concentrated there and considerable investments in development of hydrocarbon resources have been made that should allow improvement in life quality of the population of the Caspian Sea region and all the people of Kazakhstan, but the city of Atyrau is also located in a coastal zone of a large inland reservoir. An irrational ecological policy will increase pollution in the sea medium and lead to upsets in its ecosystem, which, in the end, will have a negative effect on the welfare of the people.

Following the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and the 1994 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the UNESCO established in 1996 the platform for Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands (CSI). The overall objective of the CSI platform is to contribute to the development of an intersectoral, interdisciplinary and integrated approach to the prevention and resolution of conflicts over resources and values in coastal regions and small islands.

The present analytical review is made within the framework of this platform. The Atyrau city and the Atyrau region as a whole, situated in coastal region of the Caspian Sea, feature in a close interlacing of ecological, economical, and social problems. The Government of Kazakhstan and local authorities are realizing large strategic programs and regional projects in this region with the aim of ensuring optimal development of the Atyrau city and the Atyrau region. The experience in improvement of ecology of the region, of health and wellbeing of the population may be also applicable for the other coastal regions.

Further, diverse aspects of the problem of sustainable development of Atyrau region are considered in this review.

General characteristics of the region

The city of Atyrau (up until 1992 called the city of Guryev), which is the regional centre of the Atyrau district, was founded in 1640 by the merchant Mikhailo Guryev: He founded the small town of Yaitsk, which in 1708 was renamed to Guryev, situated on the Ural River.

The Atyrau district (oblast) (up until 1992 called the Guryev district) was formed in 1938, and it is situated in the west of the republic. In the West the district borders on the Astrakhan district of the Russian Federation; in the north with the Western-Kazakhstan district; in the east with the Aktobe district; and in the southeast up to the Ustyurt plateau in the Mangistau district. The district is bounded by the waters of the Caspian Sea [1]. The district occupies a territory of over 118 thousand sq. km. The length of the border from the north to the south is 350 km; from the east to the west it is more than 600 km. The climate is extreme continental, despite the proximity of the sea, and is extremely dry, with hot summers (+40-42° С) and cold winters (-38 – 40° С) [2].

The land is flat. There are 4 large rivers flowing through the district and there is one lake. The main waterway of the district area – the Ural River – runs into the Caspian Sea 45-50 km to the south of the city of Atyrau. According to the character of soil cover and vegetation the territory is divided into four zones: seaside, river, river plain, semi desert-steppe and a zone of sand. Forest occupies hardly more than 1 % of the territory.

The district population comprises 450 thousand persons (3 % of the total population of the RК). The territory covers 118.6 thousand sq. km (4.35 % from the total area of the country), and the average population density is 3.8 person per 1 sq. km. At the beginning of 2002, 196,000 people (almost half the district population) lived in the city of Atyrau.

In the area there are two cities, 7 rural areas, 14 settlements, 189 rural and village districts. The urban population makes up 58.3 % and the rural the remaining 41.7 %. The district has about 200 schools, 10 colleges, 3 higher schools; there are 40 hospital establishments.

The Caspian Sea is a unique internal reservoir with rich stocks of the most valuable breeds of fishes – beluga, sturgeon, starred sturgeon, thorn, sazan and many others. The production from sturgeon includes black granular and processed pressed caviar, as well as cured balyk. Before the revolution fishing was a handicraft, and processing of a fish was limited to salting, drying and preparation of balyk. The fishing industry of the area was created in 1920. In 1933 the first enterprise fishing industry of Kazakhstan – the Guryev fish-canning factory – was put into operation.

In the 1970s to 1980s the fish branch of the area delivered about 57 types of fish products to the consumer market, including about 30 kinds of canned food. In the 90s stocks and catches of sturgeon fish fell sharply. Regulation of rivers, worsening of ecological conditions and insufficient times for spawning has led to disappearance of the well-known Caspian hall and sabre fish. Stocks of small fishes such as sazan, pikeperch and the Caspian asp have sharply decreased, and the number of sturgeon shoals is falling. The adverse ecological situation in the Caspian Sea has made the situation with its sturgeon population, comprising 70 % of the world stock, a critical one. In 1997 two fish-breeding factories for young sturgeon fish have been constructed. Research and development is working on the transition to new ways of catching fish, and a study to improve the mode of vessel [2] has been conducted.

The water level of the Caspian Sea has been rising constantly over the last 25 years, flooding wide spaces of land of the five Caspian Sea region states – Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan. Flooding of the territory occurs due to:

-         household and industrial sewage in seaside cities (up to minus 26.5 m)

-         river drainage in the rivers deltas (up to minus 25 m),

-         winds (up to minus 21-22 m), and

-         washout of coastal ledges (up to minus 24 m)

Scientists forecast that the increase of the level of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan up to minus 26 and even minus 25 m will lead to lengthening of the coastal line from 2400 km up to 2700 km, and 2.2 million hectares will be added to the 1.2 million hectares of land area already flooded. Now the oil fields on the north and northeast coasts of the Caspian Sea are in the greatest danger of flooding, resulting in ecological problems [45]. The zone of probable flooding covers 43 oil fields in all including 32 fields in the Atyrau district [3].

Besides the riches of the Caspian Sea, the district has large oil fields and gas fields, and deposits of borate, potash and sodium salts [44].

Within the limits of southern part of the Caspian Sea coastal basin, over 300 domes were revealed up by the end of the 20th century. Geological, seismic mapping and a transition to new methods of drilling have been carried out. The Emba oil fields have played an important role in the development of the huge steppe territory. In terms of stocks of oil, the Tengiz field is only exceeded in the CIS countries by the Samotlor field in Tyumen.

Development of the Tengiz field has led not only  to the creation of a new industrial region, and the development of its infrastructure, social and cultural spheres, but also to the growth of economic potential of Atyrau district, as well as of the republic as a whole. Kazakhstan is included in the list of the larger oil-extracting states of the world. Now intensive works are being conducted in the district on the development of the Caspian Sea shelf. According to forecast estimates, oil recovery should reach 55 million tons/year by 2010, and 74-75 million tons/year by 2030. The increase in the volume of oil and gas recovery demands an accelerated decision concerning problems of transportation inside and outside the country [2].

Social and economic development of the district in 2001 was characterized by the following parameters [1]:

-           According to annual results, the district has the greatest share in the republican fixed investment, mainly in oil and gas recovery.

-           The district occupies first place in the country in terms of cost volume of national wealth (the balance cost of the fixed assets makes up more than 21 % of the republican volume).

-           The district also has the highest industrial output in the country, and since 1999 it has been growing every year.

-           At the same time, the gross output of agriculture for 2001 occupied one of the bottom positions – 13th of 14 districts.

-           The economically active population comprised 203 thousand persons.

-           The unemployment rate is 13.5 % (the highest rate in the whole republic).

-           The average monthly nominal wages are 35.5 thousand tenge (the highest in Kazakhstan after the Mangistau district).

-           The number of schools made up 2.4 % of the total schools in the country, colleges made up 2.8 %, and higher schools 1.6 %.

-           The number of doctors of all specialities comprised 2.7 %, and of middle medical personnel 2.8 % of the total number in the RК.

-           In terms of water consumption, the district was 11th out the other 14 areas and the cities of Astana and Almaty.

-           Polluting substances emissions into the atmosphere were 130.4 thousand tons (5 % of the total amount of emissions in Kazakhstan). This number was exceeded only in the Karaganda, Pavlodar and East Kazakhstan districts. The purification level of polluting substances is very low.

-           In the sphere of housing construction, the picture is as follows: commissioning of apartment houses is one of the highest in the country – 5th after the Southern - Kazakhstan district, the cities of Almaty, Astana and the Almaty district.

-           At the same time, in the recent 7 years, no preschool establishments have been constructed. However, 2000 student's places were created in comprehensive schools and 70 beds in hospitals were put into operation.

-           The price index for food products in 2001 was the highest in the country.

The government of the Republic pays special attention to the Atyrau district as one of the most unprotected areas of Kazakhstan with the highest rate of unemployment, where losses of working hours are high, and where commodity markets are absent. The adverse economic situation is aggravated by serious environmental problems that are reflected in health, in birth and death rates and in the wellbeing of the population.

The city of Atyrau is situated in a coastal zone of the Caspian Sea. Now, according to the United Nations, 66 % of the planet’s population (3.6 billion persons) live in coastal zones (of 60 km width), and the majority of them in large cities. The excessive urbanization leads to a growing intensity of sea environment exploitation and an increase in pollution, threatening both the sea ecosystem balance and people’s existence [4].

The condition of the sea and coast directly depends on efficient control of basins, through which fresh water streams flow into the sea. Unfortunately, the importance of observing ecological norms and laws has not yet been established in the consciousness of the people, therefore the initiatives of scientists, teachers, and active workers in public and nongovernmental organizations are called on to play a crucial role in society. The primary factors of maintaining a sustainable and long-term sea ecosystem state are the development of scientific research and monitoring of condition of the seas and oceans. The conclusion of a package of ecological agreements by the five Caspian Sea states would permit the implementation of urgent collective measures for protection of the natural environment of the Caspian Sea and its fish reserves.

Criteria and indicators of sustainable development

The UN Conference on environment and development (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992), in which official representatives of 179 states took part, has played an important role in the formation of a concept of sustainable development.

There are various definitions of sustainable development. “Sustainable” development means such development that stimulates economic growth, allocates its results fairly, restores and conserves the environment to a greater measure than destroying it, and increases opportunities of people rather than impoverishing them.

The following definition is the most widespread:

Sustainable development is such development that satisfies the present needs, but does not threaten the ability of future generations to satisfy their needs.

There are also briefer definitions of sustainable development:

-         Development which does not incur additional expense for future generations;

-         Development which minimizes externalities between generations;

-         Development which provides a constant simple and/or an expanded reproduction of industrial potential in future;

-         Development in which it is necessary for mankind to live only on the interest of natural capital, without using the capital itself.

Thus, the most prominent aspects of a concept of sustainable development are economic, ecological and social [34].

For an estimate of sustainable development the following criteria are applied:

-        Actual employment level of the population. A higher level of social and economic wellbeing results in a higher employment level of the population;

-        The human development index (HDI) includes gross national product per capita, educational level, and the state of health of the population. HDI is an indicator of social wellbeing in society. In a global classification, Kazakhstan was included in a group of countries with an average level of human development potential;

-        Monetary-financial criterion.

The system of indicators developed by the Commission of the United Nations on sustainable development is an integral part of the concept of sustainable development.

These indicators include:

-        the rate of unemployment,

-        factors of migration and birth rate,

-        GNP per capita,

-        the share of industrial extraction of natural resources in the manufacture of finished goods,

-        the volume of financial resources,

-        the share of re-allocatable financial resources through a financial system,

-        the share of the financial resources left for disposal of regions

Let us now consider the following components of a concept of sustainable development, namely economy, ecology and state of health of the population in the Atyrau region.

Economy of the region

The priorities of economic development in the Atyrau district are the following:

-        fuel and energy,

-        processing,

-        agro-industrial and fish industries,

-        manufacture of building materials

In the industrial production infrastructure the greatest part is concerned with the extraction of crude oil and gas processing, with oil refining and the manufacture and distribution of electricity. The unique oil-and-gas fields and gas condensate raw materials are contained within the territory of the district. Reserves of oil of industrial categories amount in all to 840 million tons. The main part is found in one of the world's largest fields Tengiz [5]. According to estimates, more than 2.5-3 billion tons of oil, and more than 1800 billion m3 of petroleum-associated gas are concentrated in the Tengiz field [6].

The main prospects for increasing oil recovery in our country are connected with:

-        development of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea

-        the Kurmangazy field,

-        the geological structures Nursultan, Ulytau and Rakushechnoe

-        the sea in the southern water area of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea and Darhan

-        to the east from the Kurmangazy field

By 2015 up to 100 million tons of oil will be annually extracted from sea fields. At the Kurmangazy field it is proposed drilling two prospecting wells of 2000 and 1300 m depth that could be accompanied by disturbances in the natural environment, although developers of the project completely exclude the possibility of chemical pollution of sea water. Drilling is complicated because Kurmangazy is located in a freezing part of the sea, and the 5-6 meter depth demands the application of floating technology [50].

Development of the field will permit

-        the development of a local infrastructure, technical and tanker fleet,

-        creation of new jobs,

-        training staff,

-        the involvement in the works of a maximum number of local contractors, suppliers of materials, goods and services,

-        the use of domestic scientific potential,

-        the increase of tax collection,

-        the solution of environmental protection problems,

-        the improvement in land reclamation,

-        the increase of fish stock reproduction,

-        completion of the Volga and Ural water stream flows to the Caspian Sea [52]

The main cargo streams now go by rail. Crude oil and refined oil products are transported basically into CIS and foreign countries. Pipeline transport consists of oil and gas pipelines and the water main "Astrakhan - Mangyshlak". The length of oil pipelines is 1237 km, and their throughput allows 13.0 million tons of oil to be annually exported. The length of the main gas pipeline is 3058 km, with a throughput capacity of 40.8 billion cubic meters annually [6].

The Atyrau refinery oil refining plant (АNPZ) is the oldest refinery in Kazakhstan. It was constructed in 1945. 15 products are produced there, but the production facilities of the factory are not used to complete capacity. Reconstruction will allow ANPZ to carry out complete processing of light oil products, to expand the nomenclature and to make the refinery products corresponding to world standards: motor gasoline АI-95, winter diesel fuel without addition of additives [47].

In Kazakhstan the Atyrau district is the leader for attracting foreign investments. The region gets more than third of the total amount of foreign investments. 243 enterprises with foreign participation have been created and are working successfully.

The basic directions of an investment policy are the attraction of domestic and foreign capitals in the manufacturing and processing industries and the construction of objects for municipal services. Among the investment objects are:

-        the plant for production of polyethylene pipes,

-        reconstruction of ANPZ,

-        development of Atyrau airport, suitable for landing and take-off of jumbo jets,

-        reconstruction of the main motorway

-        the project for construction of drainage systems for reduction of subsoil water levels in the city of Atyrau,

-        collecting and recycling of municipal waste is in progress

-        construction of a plant for garbage processing,

-        construction is planned of water purification facilities in 37 settlements of the district

-        the pilot project “Water supply and sanitary in Atyrau city” has been realized

-        from the point of view of ecology, the sulphur recycling is another important project

-        construction of the following infrastructure objects: a business centre, a supermarket and hotel complexes, living complexes and the road/automobile bridge are important for the city

-        thanks to an oil-and-gas complex, financing of the construction of an integrated poultry farm and reconstruction of a greenhouse complex in Atyrau city has been carried out,

-        reconstruction of sturgeon factories has been performed [6]

The rural population of the district comprises more than 40 % of the total population. Because of the low profitability of agricultural production caused by poor soil fertility and scarcity of vegetation, the proportion of home-produced basic food supplied to the population of the district remains low:

-        for meat and dairy products 88.5% and 32.8 % respectively

-        eggs 1.4%

-        potato 19.5%

-        vegetables 6.1%

-        cucurbitaceous products 62.4 % [6]

One of priority branches of the Atyrau district – the fishing industry – has been developed successfully. The increase in volume of production in the fishing industry has been attained due both to intensively developed technologies, and to an increase in fish caught [5].

The share of the Atyrau district in the total internal product is 11.4 %, corresponding to 3rd place in all regional locations.

Ecological situation in the region

The Atyrau district occupies a special place amongst the regions and zones of ecological disaster in Kazakhstan. The ecological situation here has arisen due to both natural and anthropogenic factors, the most important of which are the rise in the Caspian Sea level and the rapid development of oil-and-gas complexes [43]. The rise in sea level can lead to the occurrence of zones of hydrogen sulphide contamination both in connection with destruction of plants on flat coasts, and as a result of flooding of operating oil and gas fields, where territories are polluted with petroleum products.

The rapid growth in oil and gas recovery and the highly aggressive properties of the recovered material accelerate the intensive pollution of the atmosphere, and of the surface and subsoil water. This in turn leads to pollution of the soil and vegetative cover, in which heavy metals, radionuclides and petroleum products accumulate.

In the Atyrau district, the process of oil exploitation has resulted in the atmosphere being polluted with solid particles, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons [9]. The ecological situation in Atyrau city has deteriorated because of air pollution in the city by mercaptan vapours, constituting another class of hazard. Motor transport is the other significant source of pollution in the city [14].

Urban air of Atyrau city contains many pollutants not encountered in a rural locality. At night a temperature inversion occurs due to radiation cooling of streets and buildings especially in the city centre and the top layer of the city air becomes warmer, promoting an accumulation of heat. Due to inversion, a dome-shaped veil of smog is formed, the densest being above the city centre. This smog has a harmful effect on the human organism [15].

Along with oil and recovered gas, there is a large quantity of associated reservoir water which is not contained properly. Part of the petroleum products escape into the sea during the operation of coastal oil wells and with their flooding, water transportation of oil and sewage occurs.

On the territory of the district there are also sites of radioactive anomalies, basically in the oil fields and around the territory of the former military ranges [48]. At the range near the Azgir settlement in 1970s to the 1980s, 17 underground nuclear explosions were carried out to create underground cavities for strategic stocks of fuel, including oil. No work has yet been done to eliminate the consequences of nuclear weapons testing at the Azgir site.

275 sites of radioactive pollution by natural radionuclides - including uranium, radium and thorium have been found, their concentrations exceeding the background radiating by ten to a hundred times; this has been found in reservoir waters taken from the sites together with oil [10].

In a shelf zone of the Caspian Sea the salt oil fields Gran, Martyshy, Zhanatalap, Buzuchi, Karazhanbas, and Kalamkas have been exploited for more than 30 years and since 1993 – the sub salt oil-and-gas field Tengiz. The emissions contain hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulphide, and oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon. These substances escape to the atmosphere and are adsorbed by the underlying surface. The maximum level of atmospheric pollution with hydrogen sulphide occurred in 1999 and for oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, in 2000.

Surface-active substances, phenols, petroleum derivatives, and heavy metals have accumulated in water. Acidification of water is also evident [11].

The adverse ecological situation in the district has been aggravated by the growth in oil recovery in the Tengiz field. In connection with development and expansion of oil recovery in the coastal areas of the North-East part of the Caspian Sea, of the Tengiz and Prorva fields, the ecosystem has been polluted mainly by sulphur and the sulphur-containing compounds which are present to a high degree in Kazakhstan oil [9].

The Tengiz gas-processing complex burns gas in flares causing atmospheric pollution of the region. More than 3.7 million tons of lump sulphur are stored [12].

Weather conditions, especially the direction and speed of wind, air temperature, precipitation, relative air humidity, etc. are the major factors in the spatial dispersion of technology-based emissions. Gas-dust emissions precipitated at the soil surface are strongly fixed in the top layers.

Significant areas are flooded by discharges of oil and drilling solutions. In the soils of all fields, bulk forms of heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt, selenium, antimony, lead) do not exceed the maximum concentration limit, except for some sites at the Tengiz field, where the lead content is 60 mg/kg and exceeds the maximum concentration limit by a factor of 2.  At profile 1 and YP, the lead content is exceeded by a factor of 8-12 and the total zinc content by a factor of 18-29. The arsenic content at some places exceeds the maximum permissible concentration limit by 15-30 times. Soil accumulation of heavy metals occurs basically due to technology-based emissions of dust, smoke, and aerosols into the atmosphere. The plants accumulate heavy metals (copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium). However, apart from nickel their heavy metal content is well below the maximum - allowable level for fodder. Halophytes have high absorbing capacity.

At the territory of the Tengiz oil-and-gas fields, during the spring period the concentration as follows:

-       lead changes within the limits of 0…4.5 (in plants) and 3…15 mg/kg (in soil);

-       zinc – 19.5…63 and 16.5…28;

-       copper – 4.5…19.5 and 7.5…25.5;

-       iron – 675…967 and 10.5…3622.5 mg/kg

In autumn the concentrations were

-        lead – 1.5…19.2 (in plants), 1.5…7.5 (in soil),

-        zinc – 4.5…138 and 10.5…39;

-        copper – 4.,5…18 and 4.5…12 mg/kg, respectively [13]

Technology-based disturbances are the dominating form of anthropogenic degradation of soils as a result of which the soil cover is completely or partially destroyed. They are connected with the movement of motor transport, development and exploitation of oil-and-gas fields, construction of communication and power transmission lines, various civil and construction works, landfill for industrial and household waste, and quarries.

Soil contamination by heavy metals occurs by irrational use of natural resources, including oil and gas recovery. The main sources of pollution of the biosphere by oil recovery are:

-        the construction of oil and gas wells (waste drilling waters and slurries, discharges from wells, combustive-lubricating materials, etc.)

-        collecting and transportation of oil by main pipelines

-        preparation of oil for processing

-        field oil refining and storage

-        filling and draining operations [8]

A problem of prevention of pollution of the Caspian Sea water by oil and petrol derivatives has risen in connection with oil fields in the flooded area. Pollution occurs also due to drainage of the Volga and Ural rivers. 77,000 tons of petroleum hydrocarbons are annually transported into the sea from the River Volga [16].

The problem of pollution by petroleum products is very serious in the northern Caspian Sea region because of imperfections in the systems and in the equipment of oil-recovery complexes. Also the   increase in the volume of transportation of crude oil and their products with tankers frequently leads to huge oil spillages. A significant amount of oil spills into the sea with accidents involving sea vessels, especially tankers [17]. Additionally, there is a marked negative influence of oil field and gas processing enterprises on the ecological state of the territory in adjacent regions.

In the opinion of many researchers, the state of the Atyrau district is characterized as being critical. In the absence of a combination of protective measures, the region will become a zone of ecological catastrophe with disastrous consequences not only for it, but also on a worldwide scale [18, 49].

The ecological consequences of such a damaging environmental impact on the Caspian Sea region are multifarious. Pollution of the coastal line by oil and petroleum derivatives and toxic gases cause the mortality of plankton and other kinds of sea flora and fauna. Numerous cases of mass mortality of sea birds and seals have been observed. The health of inhabitants of oil-recovery areas has suffered significantly. Along the coast of the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea frontal there is moderate desertification, while in the areas of oil fields there are conspicuously large areas of strong and very strong local desertification [19].

In connection with planned works for drilling on a shelf of the Caspian Sea in the zone of an especially protected territory, the further fate of the ichthyo- and ornithofauna causes considerable apprehension. Water polluted by oil, heavy metals, pesticides, and phenol is extremely toxic for fishes. Since the end of the 1970s the annual sturgeon catch has decreased almost 20 times by 8-10 thousand tons. Bio-terrorism is becoming a real danger. In connection with the rise of the Caspian Sea level, the state of the spawning areas has worsened. The relief of a coastal zone is a soil-and- vegetative cover and the biogeocenocis as a whole is transformed [2]. A mass mortality of Caspian seals took place, caused by pollution of seawater from toxic discharges from both the operation of numerous drilling rig installations surrounding the Caspian Sea and as a result of prospecting drilling on the sea shelf. Plugs have rusted on the old wells which were flooded as a result of the rise of the Caspian Sea level and through the leaks oil began to drain into the seawater [52].

The Atyrau district administration (Akimate) has accepted measures to eliminate oil leakage from the wells flooded with seawaters, and have approved a plan of measures including

-        research on the sources of oil leakage,

-        installation of preventive devices on well heads,

-        arrangement of the equipment for eliminating oil leakage,

-        flying over the territory with the purpose of detecting the presence of oil spots [20]

Caspian Sea is a centre of a surprising variety of forms of wildlife and the major source of food resources. In order to preserve this biological diversity while maintaining a simultaneous sustainable development of coastal areas, it is necessary to settle the fishery problems. The following must be defined:

-        principles of distribution of bio-resources between the Caspian Sea states,

-        the order of export of fish production,

-        organizing the carrying out of joint scientific researches

-        a scientific substantiation of a quota on the sturgeon fishes catch

The first joint collaboration in the past 10 years was carried out in January - February, 2003. The experts made a complex survey of sturgeons, sprats and herrings [51].

As mentioned above, the major factors and influences representing a threat to the Caspian Sea are

-        unreasonable operation of sea biological resources, fishery and poaching,

-        pollution of the sea,

-        oil and gas recovery on a sea shelf,

-        pollution and other influences on ecosystems of the rivers running into the sea

The basic superficial water sources in the area are the rivers Urals, Emba, Sagiz, Uil and the deltaic branches of the rivers Volga-Kigach, Sharonovka [7]. Ways of mitigation and prevention of threats will consist of:

-        a radical reform of the fishery industry,

-        creation of the national network of specially protected sea natural territories,

-        carrying out an ecological appraisal of proposed projects for oil and gas recovery on a shelf prior to the beginning of realization of such projects

Efforts for the preservation of threatened species of sea animals are necessary.

Experts consider that an increase of environmental pollution by oil of the Northern Caspian Sea region by 10 maximum concentration limits will result in a catastrophe for the ecosystem. The Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea is the most vulnerable ecological system, and most sensitive to external influences. The influence of pollutants on this ecosystem is 100 times worse than in other parts of the sea [20].

Kazakhstan is obliged to take special measures to protect sturgeon fishes, the remaining Caspian seals and migrating birds. Levels of natural reproduction of sturgeon fishes in the lower reaches of the River Ural are unsatisfactory. In recent years a critical reduction of sturgeon fish numbers has been observed as a result of fishery intensification, deterioration of conditions for reproduction and an increase in poaching. Within the framework of the Program on the development of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea, it is necessary to carry out works on conservation and restoration of its biological resources.

At the same time, since the Caspian Sea is the common property of all the Caspian Sea regions and states, all of them should bear collective responsibility for the damage already caused to the natural environment of the Caspian Sea. They should also recognise the increasing danger of destruction of its ecology and disappearance of unique bio-resources, and be prepared to take measures to prevent ecologically dangerous actions to the extremely sensitive geodynamics in this region.

The development of an economic - legal mechanism of regulation is necessary for conflicting interests of the coastal nature users [21, 22].

State of the population health of Atyrau and Atyrau district

A considerable proportion of the population of the Atyrau district are in direct contact with oil and products of its refining, and also with the other toxic and carcinogenic chemical substances which are released into the environment: The latter have harmful effect both on the oil employees and on the population having no direct contact with oil. On a background of demographic problems, the negative effects of oil and petroleum products on the human organism can multiply. Therefore, considering the adverse ecological factors characteristic for the given zone, a thorough  scientific research into the state of health of the population of the region and the development of resolute preventive actions are necessary [23].

As medical-demographic researches show, for the period of 1990-1998 the birth rate, death rates and natural increment of population parameters showed the tendency to steadily deteriorate: the birth rate in the Atyrau district decreased by 29.9 %, death rate increased by 37.9 % [24]. The natural increment of population has decreased from 20 persons in 1990 down to 9-10 in 1999, whereas the death rate in the adult population in the same years increased from 4-7 per 1000 up to 8-10 per 1000 of population, although children's death rate decreased [25]. Similar data are also given in the reference [26]. The level of birth rate in the district in comparison between1990 and 2000 decreased from 27.1 to 18.5 per 1000 persons, and the death rate increased from 6.6 to 10.7 per 1000 persons. The natural increment of population decreased from 19.7 to 7.8 per 1000 persons and infant death rate from 31.7 to 18.4 per 1000 born children. Since 1998, the situation has stabilized, and in separate territories an improvement of the demographic situation has been discernible [27].

The primary sick rate disease of adult population with diseases of respiratory organs was 6276 in 2000 as opposed to 5699 in 1990. The rising tendency is continuing of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs connected with hypo-ferric anaemia and the negative effect of adverse ecological factors, caused by the growth of oil and gas recovery and refining on the territory of the district.

With the growth of oil recovery in the Atyrau district, both emissions of harmful substances to the atmosphere and the number of ill people increase. A study of the dynamics of the sick rate shows that from 1990-1999, respiratory diseases, diseases of blood-forming organs, digestive organs, the urogenital system, and also infectious diseases are the most prevalent for the population of Atyrau city and the Atyrau district [25].

On the basis of the results of 2000 in comparison with the 1999 data, the general sick rate for diseases of blood circulation system, respiratory organs, and the urogenital system have all increased. The increase in diseases of blood and blood-forming organs of the population is observed in places. Viral hepatitis "A", acute intestinal infections, and tuberculosis are the most typical infectious diseases. The tuberculosis sick rate remains at a high level [28].

As a result of intensive development of oil recovery and oil refining industries, diseases of nervous and immune systems, of oral cavities and teeth, of osseous-muscular system, and cutaneous diseases also are widespread among inhabitants of the area [29].

In the Makhambet district of the Atyrau district, the data on doctors’ visits show that the most widespread are the diseases of the following:

-        respiratory organs, 30.9 %,

-        digestion organs, 12.9%,

-        infectious and parasitic, 12.6%

-        blood circulation system, 9.9%

-        skin and hypodermic cellular tissue, 7.1%

-        diseases of nervous system and sense organs, 6.1 %

The highest general sick rate in the population is registered in the age groups 40-49 and over 70s, and the lowest in the age group of 5-6 years. Children of the 1st year of life and 1-4 year olds suffer most from bronchitis, pneumonias, and children up to10-14 years with tonsillitis. Among infectious and parasitic diseases tuberculosis with 44.9 % is the most prevalent [30].

The general sick rates for the population of Atyrau city are on the whole at about the same level or even lower than that of the district. But levels of infectious and parasitic diseases are 1.6 times higher and for adults 2.5 times higher than the average values for both the district and the Republic. The high level of infectious diseases is a result of bad social living conditions and a unsatisfactory state of the drinking water supply, sanitary cleaning of the city territory, etc. The high sick rate for diseases of organs of blood circulation, organs of urogenital and osseous-muscular systems is marked, especially in children. The tuberculosis sick rate of the city population exceeds the average value for the Republic by 2.3 times [31].

Prevalence of diseases among children and teenagers has been analysed. The structures of sick rate depend on the ecological situation. Comparison of sick rates of children in the cities of Atyrau and Aktau shows that as a whole, the sick rate of children, as assessed by visits to their doctors, is higher in Atyrau than in Aktau. According to pathology of children up to 14 years, diseases of respiratory organs, parasitic diseases, diseases of skin and hypodermic cellular tissue, nervous system and sense organs, digestive organs, and also trauma and poisonings are prominent. Kzylkoginsky, Kurmangazinsky, and Zhilaisky districts have a higher sick rate in comparison with other districts of the Atyrau district [32].

Now the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Children's Fund of the United Nations have developed the program of cooperation for 2000–2004 which is directed at strengthening the opportunities for families by means of increasing their responsibility, their level of knowledge and initiative. The program also endeavours to involve the family more actively and effectively in the health protection of their children, their development, their protection and participation [53]. The Atyrau district is one of three regions of Kazakhstan included in this program. The actions of the program concentrate on maternal and neonatal care, sanitary-and-hygienic education, water supply, ecology and sanitary aspects.

The basic hygienic problem in the area is the state of the population’s drinking water supply. 82 settlements of the district are not provided with a water supply. In the past 5 years more than 5 thousand persons have been ill with acute intestinal infections and viral hepatitis in Atyrau. Infectious sick rate tends to growth [33]. One of the main ways of spreading infections is with the water supply. The technical state of the distribution network, water columns, and the head works of the water mains is unsatisfactory. Bacteria and phages have been registered on the head works of a water pipe and distributing network. Coli and the antigen of viral hepatitis are periodically seen. The growing power of economy becomes a destructive force for the biosphere and human life [34].

For preservation of the vital needs of the present generation and the preservation of such opportunities for the future generations, the transition to sustainable development of cities, industry, power engineering, agriculture, transport is absolutely necessary. There is a need to develop and introduce highly effective methods and means of environmental monitoring and its regular implementation. The transition to a model of sustainable development is a long and complex process made more difficult by various conflicts of interest [35].

Thus, the analysis of the system of indicators of sustainable development of the Atyrau region shows their heterogeneity and discrepancies. The statistics above mentioned in the text and in the Appendix below testify that while there is/are

-        the highest level of a gross regional product per capita in the country

-        the highest level of average nominal wages in Kazakhstan

-        high development of the industry

-        excellent (different) investment parameters

-        good demographic parameters of a natural increment of population in the region,

There is at the same time

-        the  highest rate of unemployment on the country is observed,

-        weak development of an agriculture taking place,

-        an adverse ecological situation causing a high sick rate of population

-        and a high mortality rate of children up to the age of 1 year

As of 2001 the rate of unemployment in the Atyrau district was 13.5 % [1]. The factor of population migration was negative, but close to 0. The birth rate was 19.9 per 1000 persons of population (the average index of the RK – 13.4). The natural increment of population was 10.1 per 1000 persons of population (RK – 2.2). The number of children dying up to the age of 1 year was 21.7 per 1000 born (RK – 19.6).

The gross regional product per capita is 642.9 thousand tenge. The share of industrial extraction in the manufacture of finished goods is 98.8 % (industry – 427.5 billion tenge, agriculture – 5.1 billion tenge).

The number of pupils at schools and colleges is 120.5 thousand persons (26.8 % of the population), in high schools there are 19.9 thousand persons (4.4 % of the population of the district).

The sick rate of population is 313 cases per 1000 persons of population (in the RK this parameter is equal to 521).

Polls also show that the population of the Atyrau sees their basic problems in a high rate of unemployment, difficulties in education, in price rises of food and articles, approach to pension age problems, poor quality of municipal services (disastrous condition of roads, low level of health services, increase of the gap in the standard of living between the rich and poor population, growth of alcoholism and drug abuse, increase in crime). Alongside this, the city population also criticises existing environmental problems, shortage of schools and preschool establishments, lack of systems for professional and higher education.

Thus, for ensuring of sustainable development of the Atyrau region, it is necessary to carry out regular work on improving the state of the economy, ecology, the health of the population and the social wellbeing of society.

Scientists, experts, experts in the field of sustainable development of regions, and international organizations have developed recommendations for successfully solving these problems. Unfortunately, these recommendations are not always accessible to controlling bodies, the public and the population as a whole.

Our goal is to make these recommendations generally available. They are systematically outlined below.

Recommendations for increasing the stability of the regional development

Socio-economic factors include demographic indices, migration of the population, employment provision possibilities, satisfaction of cultural demands, and the consumer-production structure. If the economy, social prosperity and ecological stability do not actively function, it is not possible to attain stability of the environment and human living conditions [36].

As it was noted above, pollution of environmental objects takes place both in the city of Atyrau and in Atyrau district – in the soil, air and water, due to unreasonable use of natural resources. The population experiences difficulties connected with limited and poor-quality water supply, public services, wastewater disposal, and exposure to harmful chemical substances.

Sustainable development of the city depends upon the ability of authorities to operate the structure of production and consumption, systems of transport and waste disposal necessary for preservation of the environment. The local authorities must be able to provide facilities for the construction, functioning and servicing of objects of economic, social and ecological infrastructure. Special attention should be paid to housing, social and physical infrastructure. Interaction of executive power is necessary including all interested parties including public services, the private sector and some individuals.

Waste products damage the environment: damage is done to water-bearing layers, coastal regions, forests and other vulnerable ecosystems. Urbanization in coastal regions causes rapid deterioration of coastal and sea ecosystems. Thus it is important to establish the tendencies in the area of city development so that sustainable development of inhabited settlements can be made viable. One of the main tasks in the construction of sustainable urbanized world is the harmonization of the needs of city development with the interests of the environment. In particular, it is necessary to protect coastal areas, water-bearing layers and other fresh-water resources from harmful influence by industry, which together with inhabited settlements is the basic source of pollution.

For stability of city development regulating the density of city building, decreasing air pollution, protecting the vegetation, all of which play an important role in the biological and hydrological balance, are of paramount significance.

In this connection it is necessary:

-         To take measures to minimize already existing environmental pollution and to decrease the possibility of potential environmental pollution from industrial objects that are operating, under construction or projected;

-         To choose an optimal location of not-yet erected industrial objects which could pollute the environment in regions remote from places inhabited by the population [46];

-         To be actively engaged in questions of city planning, choice of construction sites for housing, playgrounds, parks, and zones for sports and recreation;

-         To work out and implement complex plans of coastal zone management for development and preservation of natural resources;

-         To provide wide participation of the population in development and realization of measures for environmental control and sustainable development of the city and district, paying special attention to the needs and priorities of women, children, youth, invalids, aged, and the poor.

In order to improve conditions of poor sections of the population it is necessary to carry out a suitable macroeconomic policy oriented towards creation of employment possibilities, availability of education and vocational training that allows people to make a free choice of work, and to make basic social services including medical institutions generally available.

By recommendation of international organization and experts the local authorities should:

-         develop and implement the policy of development for populated settlements providing food safety, the necessary level and quality of education, employment and medical aid to the population;

-         promote formation of an economic policy which will have a positive effect on employment and incomes of women and reduce unemployment among them;

-         provide equal access to basic education for all sections of the population, eliminating obstacles connected with remoteness and absence of educational institutions;

-         minimize pollution from industrial objects, not allowing excessive concentration of environmentally polluting industrial objects in regions populated by the poor;

-         involve socially unprotected groups of people in processes of planning, decision making, observation and evaluation connected with development of inhabited settlements;

-         reduce the danger connected with sanitary state of the environment at enterprises, provide workers with information on safety precautions at the place of work and take measures to reduce health risks for the workers;

-         involve the private sector, including small enterprises, in granting basic services and goods to the population;

-         grant help in questions of development, marketing and sale of produce manufactured by small enterprises;

-         promote general access to credit and banking service with flexible guarantees concerning women and the poor;

-         encourage the creation and strengthening of production especially by medium and small enterprises, expand market and possibilities for hiring and receiving vocational training for youth, women and men, including invalids;

-         decrease social and physical isolation of persons with invalidism, promote equal access of persons with invalidism to all levels of education and vocational training, jobs, provide invalids with accessible and qualitative medical service, grant full access for them to all new public buildings and structures, residential houses and systems of public transport, promote sports, recreation and cultural activity for persons with invalidism;

-         inform the public about possibilities of employment through mass media;

-         encourage information-instruction companies aimed at youth awareness of the historical, natural, religious and cultural heritage, promoting conception of ecological values and consequences of diverse models of production and consumption on the ecology;

-         promote the spread of knowledge and provide accessibility of education with the aim of decreasing crime and violence; prevent crime by addressing such problems as poverty, inequality, poor family circumstances, unemployment, absence of professional possibilities, shortage of medical institutions including psychiatric hospitals;

-         improve the activity of police service, practice their regular reporting to the population.

In this direction the concrete priorities in the Atyrau district in the field of industry are designated [5]:

-         development of small and medium private shops and mini-plants for production and processing of meat and milk products;

-         organization of shops for sewing leather articles;

-         production of construction materials from locally available raw materials;

-         creation of large enterprises for production of table salt and soda ash;

-         construction of shops for production of non-alcoholic beverages

In the field of agriculture:

-         development of farms engaged in cattle breeding and plant growing;

-         reconstruction of existing hot-house complexes;

-         production of milk and milk products;

-         organization of dairies;

-         strengthening of control against fish poaching

In the social sphere:

-         provision of development for self-employment and entrepreneurship;

-         organization of paid public work;

-         development of a regional program for employment of the population

A close interrelation exists between demographic tendencies and factors and sustainable development. Growth of the population and scale of production exert an influence upon the use of atmosphere, land-, water-, power- and other resources. At the stages of development and realization of sustainable development policy, the human factor should be taken into consideration.

It is necessary to

-         accumulate social and demographic information,

-         assess its interconnection with physical, biological and socio-economic data,

-         take into account the demographic tendencies and factors during analysis of environmental control problems, and the interconnection between the dynamics of population growth, development of technology, state of natural resources and natural life-support systems,

-         evaluate the degree of threat to the population residing in ecologically vulnerable regions and large inhabited settlements,

-         study the effect of change of environmental conditions on human health and expand interdisciplinary investigations [37].

Of great importance is the informing of society about the results of investigations on problems of sustainable development by means of the use of mass media, holding seminars and forums so that administrative bodies may use these investigations, preparation of scientific reports, and publication of material in scientific journals. The major content of the analysis includes

-         interrelation between demographic tendencies and changes in the environment,

-         interrelation between the degradation in the ecological state and the components of demographic changes,

-         revelation of vulnerable sections of the population whose changes in demographic structure may exert a particular influence on sustainable development,

-         evaluation of effect of age structure of the population on the demand for resources

-         analysis of the consequences of unemployed sector of the population

It is necessary

-         to create and support the current status of the national and regional data bases on demographic tendencies and changes in the environment,

-         on the basis of these data bases to present reviews about the status of the population and environmental objects,

-         to study the reaction of various sections of the population to the available demographic tendencies.

Of great importance is the analysis of demographic tendencies in connection with such factors as the status of ecosystems, technologies, inhabited settlements, and socio-economic structures.

Of particular importance is the development and realization of programs and services connected with protection of reproductive health, the aim of which is to decrease maternal and infant mortality. It is necessary to establish institutions engaged in

-         prophylaxis and treatment of women providing inexpensive and accessible services in the field of protection of reproductive health,

-         granting medical service to women including antenatal service,

-         organizing clarification and information programs,

-         creating conditions for breast feeding for all women during at least the first four months after child birth,

-         improving medical service for children.

Present approaches to rational use of sea and coastal resources do not always allow the attaining of sustainable development. Processes of depletion of coastal resources, degradation and deterioration of habitat continue to take place [41].

For sustainable development of coastal regions and sea medium it is necessary:

-         to implement preliminary expertise and systematic observation concerning the consequences of realization of major industrial projects;

-         to develop and apply accounting methods for the utilization of national resources and ecological costs including such factors as pollution, degradation of sea medium, depletion of resources and destruction of habitat;

-         to provide free access to ecological information for interested persons, groups and organizations [38].

Bodies of local authorities and management should implement:

-         planning and realization of policy in the field of land- and water use;

-         programs of rational use and sustainable development of coastal and sea regions;

-         the development of schemes for coastal regions with determination of critical zones subject to erosion,

-         concrete priorities in the field of rational use of mineral resources;

-         the development of plans of actions in case of anthropogenic and natural calamities including consequences of change of climate and increase of sea level, at worsening of state and pollution of the environment induced by technological factors including spillages of oil and other materials;

-         improvement of coastal inhabited settlements, housing, supply of the population with drinking water, sewage treatment and waste disposal including wastewater, industrial effluents, solid and industrial wastes;

-         control of the introduction of ecologically safe technologies and sustainable methods;

-         development and use of criteria for evaluation of environmental quality ;

-         periodical evaluation of the impact of external factors on environmental state and health of the population;

-         measures for sustainable development of agriculture, tourism, fishing industry, ports and industrial branches exerting an influence upon coastal regions;

-         development of clarification and information of public

It is necessary to take measures aimed at conservation of biological diversity and productivity of sea species of animals and plants. Such measures are

-         carrying out reviews of biological diversity of sea resources,

-         making out of lists of threatened species and critical places of their habitat in coastal and sea regions,

-         creating protective areas,

-         supporting research investigations and widespread distribution of their results

It is necessary to make a systematic compilation, analysis, evaluation, dissemination and use of information with the aim of a rational use of resources, evaluation of ecological consequences of activity of enterprises in coastal and sea regions:

-         to create and replenish data bases for evaluation of the status and the rational use of coastal regions, the sea and its resources;

-         to develop socio-economic and ecological indices and criteria;

-         to make regular ecological expertise surveys of the environmental state of coastal and sea regions;

-         to ensure exchange of information and data with contiguous states and international organizations;

-         to carry out training, preparation and enhancement of qualification of scientists, specialists, technologists, executive staff, population, and the public in the field of rational use and sustainable development of coastal and sea regions.

The sea medium, including oceans and seas and coastal regions adjacent to them, presents a self-contained unit, which is an important component of the global system of life- support and acts as a positive factor opening possibilities for sustainable development [42].

Degradation of sea medium takes place due to the action of a number of sources, from which 70% of the pollution originates from ground sources, and 10% from sea transportation and waste discharges into the sea. The sea medium can be influenced by such factors as

-         inhabited settlements,

-         land use,

-         construction of coastal infrastructure,

-         agriculture and forestry,

-         urban development,

-         tourism and industry,

-         erosion of coastal zone and silting,

-         navigation and sea activity,

-         oil and gas production in the sea.

The greatest threat to the sea medium is

-         wastewater,

-         synthetic organic compounds,

-         sediment,

-         garbage and plastic articles,

-         heavy metals,

-         radionuclides,

-         oil (hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – PAH).

A great many pollutants entering from ground sources present a specific danger as they are toxic, stable and may be absorbed by living organisms [39].

For preventing sea medium degradation the following prophylactic approaches are necessary, making assessment of environmental impact, using “clean” methods of production, recirculation, control, and construction, together with improvement of sewage works. Coastal exhaust wastewater manifolds should be located so as to maintain a permissible level of environmental quality, whereby pathogenic organisms do not exert an influence upon sea fishery. It is necessary to carry out primary cleaning of municipal wastewater discharged into rivers, estuaries and sea, and to develop and realize programs of normative regulation and monitoring.

In coastal regions it is necessary to eliminate discharges of organic halogen-containing compounds, reduce discharges of synthetic organic compounds, limit anthropogenic discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus, reduce use of tin-containing organic compounds used in antifouling paints, and to prohibit use of ecologically dangerous pesticides and fertilizers.

Facilities at receiving ports should be created for gathering residues of oil and chemical substances and garbage from ships. Regional centres should be created for clean up of oil and chemical spillages.

Observation of the sea medium state should be made on a systematic basis; exchange of information concerning sea medium pollution should be made regularly. A global catalogue and data base should be created containing information about sources, types, sizes and consequences of escape of pollutants into sea medium from sources located on land and sea and arising as a result of economic activity in coastal regions.

Enterprises should introduce “clean” and profitable technologies to limit pollution; they should develop and implement inexpensive plants and technologies which are simple to operate for the purification of atmospheric discharges and wastewater; they should organize laboratories and equip them with the necessary equipment, materials and reagents for making systematic observations of anthropogenic and other kinds of influence on the sea medium, and develop materials and methods of control of oil spillage.

A system of professional training of specialists should be organized for training and teaching methods of sea medium protection as well as be organizing courses for the personnel for eliminating and cleaning up oil and chemical spillages.  Practical courses on ecological aspects of port operations should also be organised.

It is necessary to carry out scientific research on the study of sea medium pollution, environmental impact assessment and to develop and present recommendations for its control. This includes the following:

-         Set up scientific committees managed and composed of local experts.

-         Expand and deepen scientific research of live sea resources of the open sea.

-         Develop models to evaluate these resources together with bio-economic models, analytical and forecasting instruments.

-         Create databases should of sea resources and fishing industry in the open sea.

-         Organize data collection about the sea medium and compare with available world data.

-         This data and information necessary for evaluation of fishing industry and reserves, together with methods of evaluation of vulnerability of coastal regions and strategy of response measures, should be exchanged on a regular basis.

The formation of sub regional, regional and global systems of observation and forecast of the consequences of extreme situations is necessary, together with the following:

-         preparation and issue of regular scientific reviews,

-         coordination of forms of presentation and storage of data,

-         transfer of gathered information to potential users,

-         making systematic observations of coastal habitat,

-         determination of changes of sea level and its state together with the status of coastal regions and tendencies of any changes

For evaluation of the sea state, both coastal and river sources of information are important. This is determined by absolute prevailing of cumulative pollution of sea through the river network. Control of information sources located in key basin points allows boundary transfer pollution to be reduced [40].

With the aim of conservation of biological diversity of sea resources it is necessary to

-         organize the management of fishery in open sea, including efficient measures for protection of these resources and decreasing the utilisation of part of these resources,

-         use of selective instruments of catching and methods which minimise losses

-         prohibit fishing using dynamite, toxic agents and other illegal fishing methods

There lack of knowledge in the field of biology and fishing statistics should be removed. Information should be provided concerning the sea biological species in all their diversity, concerning live sea resources and the most important places of their habitat, and the systems of data processing should be improved.

The measures taken should result in increase of sea reserves for satisfaction of man’s demands for food, maintaining the sea species population at or restoring to the necessary level. Sea resources provide millions of people with foodstuffs and a means for existence. That is why it is necessary to develop a production of marine and aqua culture, small fisheries, and to improve methods of processing, distribution and transportation of sea products.

On May 16, 2003 a State program of development of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea [54] was approved by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev, which should contribute to sustainable economic growth of the country and the Caspian Sea region. In particular, the improvement of life quality of Kazakhstan people would be realised by rational and safe development of hydrocarbon resources of Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea, and by rational and safe development of accompanying industry branches of the country.

The main objectives of the Program include the

-         provision of growth of proven hydrocarbon reserves and increase of their production rate,

-         development of petrochemical productions,

-         provision of stability of development of oil-and-gas complex,

-         development of production of construction materials and structures for erection of marine structures,

-         systems of transportation,

-         modernization of machine building enterprises,

-         development of sea fleet and ports,

-         formation of the region’s own scientific and technological base,

-         protection of health of people and environment,

-         improvement of the population life quality


Statistical indices over Atyrau district and Republic of Kazakhstan in 2001[1]


Atyrau district

Kazakhstan as a whole

Population, thousand people



Gross regional product, million tenge



Industrial products volume, million tenge



Agricultural products, million tenge



Investments in fixed capital, million tenge



Retail trade turnover, million tenge



Putting into operation of fixed assets, million tenge



Financial results of transaction units, million tenge



Average annual number of people employed in economy, thousand people



Income used for consumption (per capita/month), tenge



Average monthly nominal wages, tenge



Number of unemployed, thousand people



Birth rate of urban population, per 1000 people



Number of deceased urban population, per 1000 people



Natural growth of urban population, per 1000 people



Number of children deceased at age under one per 1 thousand being born



Migration loss from foreign countries, people



Migration loss from CIS countries, people







In agriculture and fishery, thousand people



In industry and construction, thousand people



In service sectors, thousand people



Average monthly nominal wages:



In agriculture and fishery, tenge



In industry and construction, tenge



In service sphere, tenge



Average monthly nominal wages at large and medium enterprises, tenge



In all











Average monthly wages at small enterprises, tenge

In all





Number of pupils in 2001/02 school year, thousand people

In all
At schools
At vocational training schools
In colleges
In higher educational establishments
Day-time students
Extra-mural students
Turn-out of specialists, people





















Morbidity (diagnosis made for the first time), cases



Investments for environmental control and rational use of mineral resources, million tenge

In all

For protection of water resources

For protection of atmospheric air











Atmospheric discharges of pollutants, thousand tons

In all from all stationary sources

Discharged without purification

Detrimental substances, thousand tons

From them solid substances









18.8 (SO2-3.5; CO-2.2; NO2-1.4)











Gross regional product per capita, thousand tenge



Number of enterprises and productions



Production volume, billion tenge



Mining industry

394.3 (92.2%)

886.6 (44.3%)

Manufacturing industry

26.8 (6.3%)

937.2 (46.9%)

Production of electric energy, gas and water

6.4 (1.5%)

176.5 (8.8%)

Number of personnel, thousand people



Income from main activity, million tenge



Production of oil and gas condensate, thousand tons



Production of natural gas, million m3



Primary oil refining, thousand tons



Export, billion $

2.06 (23.9% from RK)

8.6 (100%)

Import, billion $

0.6 (9.5% from RK)

6.4 (100%)

Number of scientific institutions, unit



Number of scientific workers, people



Number of investigators and technicians, people



Volume of scientific and technical works, million tenge



Number of workers of the main scientific and technical activity, people



Gross expenses for R&D, million tenge



Expenses for scientific investigations made by the own forces, million tenge






1.        Regions of Kazakhstan. – Almaty: Agency of RK for statistics, 2002. – 430 p

2.        Site of the city of Atyrau. –

3.        Strategy of the country program (Kazakhstan) / third version //Almaty: Global ecological fund, 1997. – 27 p

4.        Problems of the Caspian and Black Sea at the World conference in Paris. -

5.        Palymbetov B. Economic potential of Atyrau district //AlPari. – 2001. – No 3. – p 22-26

6.        Nigmasheva S.K. Investment climate of Atyrau district: Analyt. Review. – Atyrau: Atyrau CSTI, 2002. – 17 p

7.        Irzagaliyev K.S. Present state of agro industrial complex in the region: Analyt. Review. – Atyrau: Atyrau CSTI, 2002. – 20 p

8.        Ishchanova N.E., Bigaliyev A.A. Investigation of content of heavy metals in soil specimens of Tengiz oil and gas deposit of Atyrau district // Vestnik KazGU. Ser. Ecological. – 2001. – p 83-85

9.        Serikov T.P., Sagandykova R.R., Yugai V.M., Eskuzhiyeva A.B. On environmental control in conditions of oil and gas production at enterprises of OJSC Kazakhoil-Emba // Oil and gas. – 2001. – No 1. – p 83-87

10.    Dubinchin P.P. Radioecological examination of oil-bearing regions // Vestnik ONC RK. Radioecology. Environmental control. – 2000. –issue 3. – p 49-53

11.    Kenzhegaliyev A.K., Khasanova A.A., Moiseyeva G.P. Ecological state of Atyrau district in connection with industrial development of the Caspian Sea shelf // Vestnik of Atyrau Institute of oil and gas. – 2002. – No 1-2. P 171-173

12.    Abdrakhmanov M., Umbetaliyeva G. Ecological problems of Atyrau district and some ways of their solution // The present-day problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of hydrocarbon raw materials: Mater. Of the Int. Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 20th anniversary of establishment of Atyrau Institute of oil and gas. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – p 364-366

13.    Ishchanova N.E., Dyusenov B. Heavy metals in soil and plants of Tengiz oil and gas deposit of Atyrau district // Academician Satpayev and his role in development of science, education and industry in Kazakhstan: Works of the Int. Symp. Devoted to 100th anniversary of K.I. Satpayev’s birth. – Almaty: KazNTU, 1999. – P.1 – p 288-290

14.    Diarov M.D., Gumarov S.S. State of air basin of Atyrau city // Problems of oil and gas complex of Kazakhstan: Mater. Of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.1. – p 290-292

15.    Berniyazova D.G., Berniyazov O.F. Dome-shaped blurred shroud in the city of Atyrau // problems of oil and gas complex of Kazakhstan: Mater. Of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.1. – p 298-299

16.    Kenzhegaliyev A., Zholdasov E., Khabdabergenova G., Bozakhayeva Z. State of pollution of the Caspian Sea with oil hydrocarbons // Oil and gas of Kazakhstan. – 1997. – No 2. – p 122-126

17.    Slashcheva A.S. Sources of environmental pollution with oil products // Problems of safety at extraordinary situations: OI/VINITI, 1997. – issue 9. – p 54-59

18.    Khairov B.G. Present ecological problems in oil industry branch of the Republic of Kazakhstan // Oil and gas. – 2001. – No 3 – C. 93-98

19.    Serikov F.T., Orazbayev B.B. Ecological state of oil and gas deposits of the Caspian Sea region and coast of Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea // Oil and gas. – 2001. – No 2. – p 105-108.

20.    Korolyeva T. Oil started to flow into the Caspian Sea from old wells // Panorama. – 13.06.2003. – No 23 (539)

21.    Aibulativ N.A., Vartanov R.V., Mikhailichenko Yu.G. Problems of complex management of coastal zones of Russia // Izv. RAS, ser. Geogr. – 1996. – No 6. – p 94-104

22.    Novikov R.A. Problem of complex management of sustainable development of cities in coastal zones: M.: IME – ME RAS, 1997 – p 37

23.    Khalel Sagyn. Medico-demographic and ecological situation in Atyrau oil-bearing region // Present-day problems of theoretical and clinical medicine: Collection of works of the IIIrd Int.Conf. of young medical scientists of CIS countries. – Almaty: NC of Urology, 2001. – p 68-69

24.    Sagyn Khalel. Organizational and managerial aspects of development of rural public health in the transition period (at example of Atyrau district): Dis. Cand. Med Sc. – Astana, 2001. – p 135

25.    Diarov M.D., Gilazhov E.G., Diarova D.M. State and dynamics of morbidity // Problems of oil and gas complex of Kazakhstan: Mater. Of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.1. – p 285-287

26.    Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Ergaliyev T., Nurgaziyev K.Sh., Utepkaliyev M., Abilgaziyeva A.A. State of health of the population and sanitary and epidemiological situation in Atyrau district // Mater. Of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.2. – p 305-308

27.    Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Nurgaziyev K.Sh., Utepkaliyev M., Ergaliyev T. On state of health of the population in ecologically unfavourable regions of Atyrau district // Mater. of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.2. – p 316-321

28.    Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Nurgaziyev K.Sh, Ergaliyev T., Abilgaziyeva A.A. Analysis of morbidity of Atyrau district population // Mater. of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.2. – p 308-311

29.    Imangaliyev A.S., Mulikov R.R., Sisengaliyeva G.Zh., Tlepov Zh.B., Alzhaniva R.Zh. Ecohygienic aspects of health // The present-day problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of hydrocarbon raw materials: Mater. of the Int. Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 20th anniversary of establishment of Atyrau Institute of oil and gas. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – p 407-409

30.    Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Ergaliyev T., Sagyn Kh. Analysis of morbidity of rural population of Atyrau district: Mater. of the Int. Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 20th anniversary of establishment of Atyrau Institute of oil and gas. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – p 423-426

31.    Jandosov Sh.U., Tolemisova A.T., Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Ergaliyev T. State of health of the population of Atyrau city by evaluation of analysis of morbidity // Mater. of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – v.2. – p 295-302

32.    Botagariyev T.A., Ivanov G.D., Tynybayev B.G., Kalzhigitov Kh.S., Kushembayev R.K. On state of health of children of Atyrau and Mangistau districts unfavourable in ecological relation // Public health of Kazakhstan. – 1995. – No 12. – p 21-23

33.    Jandosov Sh.U., Tolemisova A.T. // Pure water – token of health // Problems of oil and gas complex of Kazakhstan: Mater. of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. – p 303-305

34.    Intykbayeva S.Zh. Theoretical bases of sustainable development / Vestnik of TURAN University. – 2003. – No 1-2. – p 22-26

35.    Sustainable development of basins of large rivers and coastal territories // Forum “Velikiye reki – 2002” –

36.    Sustainable development of inhabited territories in urbanized world – Agenda Habitat –

37.    Ecolife: Dynamics of the population and sustainable development

38. Agenda for XXI century – Complex rational use and sustainable development of coastal and sea regions

39.    Ecolife: Agenda for XXI century – Protection of oceans and all kinds of seas including closed and half-closed and coastal regions. -

40.    Lagutov V.V. Role of information systems in provision of sustainable development / Conference IOL-99. -

41.    Filonov V. On sea program WWF of Russia. -

42. Joint declaration of Russian Federation and Islamic Republic of Iran on legal status of the Caspian Sea. - –

43.    Obrevko L.A., Frolova V.A., Darisheva A.M. Ecological problems and utilization of oil industry wastes: Analyt. Review. – Almaty: KazgosINTI, 2002. – p 120

44.    Tasmagambetov I.N. Oil and gas complex – impetus of economy of Kazakhstan // Oil and gas. – 1999. – No 3 (7). – p 3-6

45.    Nysangaliyev A.N., Shishkovsky N.A. On erection of dikes protecting the city of Atyrau and its near and remote infrastructure from flooding by the Caspian Sea by hydro mechanization means / Ins-te Caspymunaigas. – Atyrau, 1996. – p 5. –Dep. in KazgosINTI 30.09.1996, No 7203 – Ka96

46.    Orazbayev B.B., Serikov F.T., Tazabekov M.N. Optimal location of production enterprises and objects of oil and gas industry branch in ecologically vulnerable regions // Problems of oil and gas complex of Kazakhstan: Mater. of Sci.-Tech. Conf. devoted to 70th anniversary of acad. N.K. Nadirov. – Atyrau: AIO&G, 2001. v. 2 – p 279-285

47.    Reconstruction of AORP // Oil and gas of Kazakhstan. – 2003. – No 1-2. – p 20-21

48.    Zhmykhov A.A. Monitoring of Atyrau district lands: Analyt. Reviwe. – Atyrau: Atyrau CSTI, 2002. – p 24

49.    Prokhorov I. Problems of Caspian ecology // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 24.06.2003

50.    Kuanysheva M. Deposit exploration starts // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 01.08.2003. – No 221

51.    Kirgizbayeva G. Preserve and increase wealth of the Caspian Sea region // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 01.08.2003. – No 221

52.    Sea oil and gas industry is being born // Kazakhstanskays Pravda. – 16.08.2003. – No 236-238

53.    Program of cooperation of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Children Fund of UNO for 2000-2004 // Bulletin of international agreements of the Republic of Kazakhstan. – 2003. – No 7. – p 93-182

54.    State program of development of Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea // Collection of acts of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. – 2003. – No 21-22. – p.132-218.