Mass communication Faculty of journalism of KazNU UNESCO chair of KazNU News of faculty of journalism of KazNU

of UNESCO in Kazakhstan

Faculty of
journalism of the
Kazakh national
university named
after al-Farabi



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Aleksandr ROZHKOV,
candidate of philological science, the senior lecturer of history of journalism chair


As the evolution of journalism testifies, one of the main directions of its development was the most complete satisfaction of needs of people in communication i.e. to provide necessary to him socially important information. Already in pre-historical time man himself acted as a mean of communication: various information distributed among kinsman by shamans, foretellers, oracles, and the means of its preservation were rock painting, parchment, clay boards.

To the present time the majority of the researchers have the same opinion, that the occurrence of press should be dated to the V-th century b.c., when the first newspapers were issued in Rome. They began to remind modern newspapers in the time of Iuly Tsezar - in 60 years b.c. The most known is the daily bulletin "Acta diurna" ("Events of a day"). There are some information, that pre-historical editions were also available in Asia (for example, in China in the VIII-th century of our era there was "Dibao" - "Court newspaper", "Kibelchzhi" - "Historical newspaper"; in Japan on clay boards was let out" Iomiuri kavaraban" - "to read and to hand"). As a matter of fact, it is a para-newspaper phenomenon.

In the Middle Ages wide circulation had so-called " flying papers " (among them - report, review, chiming etc) distinguished with highly expressed information-applied character. The invention of process of printing with help of mobile letters in 1440 by I. Guttenberg had given a push to development of press and journalism. As a native land of press as social institute it is possible to consider the territory of Western Europe. As the first newspaper, it is accepted to consider Belgian "Niewe Tydingen" ("All news"), which had been issuing in Antwerp approximately since 1605 in a printing house Аvramma Vergevena. Since the 11-th March 1702 in England and in London, the first daily newspaper "Daily Courant" ("Daily bulletin") has been issuing.
In ancient times the forms of language were realised in chronicles, annals, biographies, histories, travels, in diverse epistolary forms - from the personal letter up to the official messages, from sermon and orders up to bull, re-scripts, leaflets. The system of journalistic genres has been forming since occurrence of printed journalism. It is possible to name the information - chronicle, reporting, and pamphlet among the initial genres. Further, other newspaper - journal genres have been forming then.

It is accepted to distinguish the following types of journalistic: religious - (XV-XVI c.c.), feudal-monarchic (XVI-XVIII с. с.), bourgeois (XIX-XX c.c.), socialist (XX с.) and humanitarian (the end of the ХХ - beginning III millennium).

In the Middle Ages, in the period of religious - clerical type, the range of creativity was sharply limited. It was explained not so much by small number of literate people, but by influence of religion on all spheres of life. It was not supposed the different trend of thought, which found reflection in the periodic editions. The feudal-monarchic type reflects low economic development of the society and the beginning of transition from the natural economy to the trade-money relations. The development of trade required information interchange about the goods, arrival of the ships, prices. In the XIX-th the journalism became a major part of political life and managing. It turned to be the instrument of political struggle - 80 percents of press had the brightly expressed political and social-political character. There was a classical division of press on qualitative (for elite) and popular (for mass). The type of intermediate mass media had got a rise by the end of theХХ-th. The socialist journalism was entirely orientated to ideological dependence, the main constant in it was Party membership. At present time we can speak about formation of humanitarian journalism. Giving estimation to existing types, it is necessary to note that these types don't exist in such order and pure form everywhere, their presence depend on a concrete situation in the state.

In bourgeois and socialist journalism, which developed simultaneously, the phenomenon of mass information - appeal attention of the broadest audience, opportunity systematically, at multi-staged level influence on a palette of opinions in a society was showed in the most complete degree.

In humanitarian journalism, which is forming now, the basic principle is the refusal of any influence on other institutes by force. Journalism is mean of communication, not a truncheon. Mass media should induce to express public opinion and to give the information, precisely separating it from other opinions and comments.
Actually three approaches have been designating, since the first steps of journalism, replacing each other, defining its typology at different stages: casuistry functional and communication. Casuistry approach is based on understanding of mass media as faultless instrument of mass influence under the scheme " the reason - consequence", i. e. is according to the principle "said by communicator - made by recipient". This approach assumed the forced spreading of authority of press, its government of minds. The functional approach is based on disagreement with such installation, asserting equal rights in partnership relation of the recipient and the communicator, therefore it is not necessary for recipient to take on trust and to accept for execution everything, that he is informed and demanded by communicator. At last, if we put in the first place not the partnership of communicator and individual recipient but all complex of mutual relation of means of mass communication and societies, it leads to formation of another approach named communication.

Basic stages of mass media development.
1.  Prior to our era - the phenomenon of old-newspapers;
2.  From the beginning of our era to the XV-th c. a. c. - Epoch of the hand-written editions;
3.  From the XV-th to the XVII-th - invention and development of book-printing, formation of the newspaper-journal business;
4.  From the XVIII-th to the beginning of the ХХ-th. - development of journalism as public institute, development of polygraphic base, formation of press as bases of democracy;
5.  From 1900 to1945 - press is gaining the function" the fourth authority ";
6.  From 1945 to 1955 - process of concentration and monopolisation of mass media;
7.  From 1955 to 1990 - epoch of formation electronic means of communication;
8.  From 1990 till the present time - formation of the new information order in the world.

Themes of the lecture lessons:
1.  Occurrence and evolution means of mass media.
2.  Traditions of mass media in American.
3.  Conservatism of English mass media.
4.  Change of shape of journalism in Germany.
5.  Limits of freedom of word in France.
6.  Formation of industry of press as profitable business in Canada.
7.  Progress in Japanese service of mass media.
8.  Feature of development of Italian journalism.
9.   Feature of religious journalism. Mass media of Vatican.
10.  Occurrence of journalism in Spanish.
11.   Ideology of mass media in Chinese.
12.  Heritage of colonisation in India and its influence press.
13.  Hard dialogue of press between two Korean countries.
14.  Feature of occurrence of Israeli press.
15.  Political situation of means of communication in Turkey.
16.  Religious Influence on development of periodicals in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
17.  Development of mass media in African continent.
18.  New information system in former Soviet Union countries.     
19.  Internet as new system of mass media.
20.  Tendency of development of communication in the world.

Themes of the seminar lessons:
1.  Periods of development of journalism.
2.  Leading system in foreign journalism, principle of the turned pyramid.     
3.  Reflection of the validity in mass media of America.    
4.  Specialisation mass media of Great Britain.    
5.  Faces of German journalism.    
6.  In the mirror of press in France.
7.  Characteristic of the Japanese media-landscape.
8.  Feature of Italian periodical.
9.  The Most national journalism of China.
10.  Political language of mass media in India.    
11.  Dualism of Korean journalism.    
12.   Mass media and political life inTurkey.
13.  Situation of mass media in the countries of the former Soviet Union.
14.  Theory of modern communication.    
15.  Historical preconditions of development of publicise.

Control questions:
1.  Grant-parents of modern press.
2.  Occurrence of the first printed newspapers in Europe and Asia.
3.  The most frequently disputable questions in foreign mass media.
4.  The largest newspaper-journal monopolies of the world.
5.  System of information agencies.
6.  Publicists of distant foreign countries: from the middle ages to present time.
8.  Feature of western ТV.
9.  Formation of image of foreign radio stations.
10.  Internet is as mass media.

The literature:
1.  Andrunas Е. I. Information elite: corporation and market of news. - М., 1991.
2.  Barmankulov М. К. Art of modern information. - Аlmaty, 1993.
3.  Voroshilov V. V. History of journalism of foreign countries. - 2000.
4.  Journalism of developing countries. - М., 1986.
5.  Journalism of Western - European countries. - L., 1990.
6.  Foreign journalism and modern ideological struggle. - L., 1986.
7.  Foreign press - М., 1978.
8.  Foreign press. - M., 1986.
9.  Foreign press: Western - Europe, The North America, Asia, Far East. - М., 1973.
10.  The law and practice of mass media in Europe, America, Australia. - М., 1997.
11.  Zemlianova L. М. Modern American communicativism. - М., 1995.
12.  Foreign press. - М., 1971.
13.  Kannon R. Word or how to write professionally "Associated press". - М., 1993.
14.  Noda L. P., Tohtakunova Z. К., Rozhkov А. V. History of world journalism. - Аlmaty, 1997.
15.  Popov I. V. Foreign journalism. - М., 1994.
16.  Sibert F., Shram Т. Four theories of press. - М., 1998.
17.  Reference book for journalists of The Central and Eastern Europe. - М., 1993.

© Кафедра ЮНЕСКО КазНУ 2001-2002 гг.

© UNESCO chair of KazNU 2001-2002