Mass communication Faculty of journalism of KazNU UNESCO chair of KazNU News of faculty of journalism of KazNU


Representation
of UNESCO in Kazakhstan
  

Faculty of
journalism of the
Kazakh national
university named
after al-Farabi

CHAPTER I

HISTORY OF
KAZAKHSTAN'S
JOURNALISM

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Saken NURBEKOV,
c.p.s., the senior lecturer of History of journalism chair
[nsaken2001@mail.ru]



THE PRESS OF KAZAKHSTAN OF THE SOVIET PERIOD (1917 - 1991.)


The second section of the course "History of Kazakh journalism" is devoted to studying press of Kazakhstan in the period of the Soviet system. The leaders of the national liberating movements of Kazakhstan - "Semipalatinsk leaflet ", "lash", "Ush-zhuz", "Kazakh", Sari-Arka " were represented on the court of public press . The ideological struggle of Bolsheviks against opposition editions is reflected in the given course.
In the decision of congress on propagation, agitation and press the speech was about irreconcilable struggle against the editions, harmful to the Soviet authority, and frame of mind. The work of Bolshevik's editions "Proletary" (Orenburg, 1917, October), "Zaria" (Petropavlovsk, 1917September). " The Country newspaper" (Verny, 1917, December), satirical magazine "Sadak" (Verny, 1917) was adjusted.

On the arena of journalism the first Soviet newspapers of Kazakhstan -the bodies of Soviets were put forward. "News of military-revolutionary committee "(Petropavlovsk, 1917, December). "News of worker's and soldier's deputies" (Semipalatinsk, 1918, February). "News of Turgaiski regional military registration "(Orenburg, 1918, February). "Dawn of freedom "(Verny, 1918, March. " Association "(Pavlodar, 1918, April). "A Vote of Altai" (Ust-Kamenogorsk, 1918, April). Periodicity, circulations of the first Soviet newspapers.

The Soviets made a decision on creation of a national press. It was "Kazakh muny" (Orenburg, 1918, April 16), edited by Nazir Turekulov, "Zhana turmis" (Ural, 1917.).

The newspaper "Tirshilik" (Akmolinsk. 1917-1918,) under the supervision of Saken Seifulin was on the guard of interests of the Soviet political system. The decisions and order of the Soviet authority determined ideological - political direction and basic subjects of the national newspapers. On the pages of the press there was "an ideological struggle" against "kulaks" as an objectionable element in the regime economy of Soviets.
With the beginning of civil war Kazakhstan also was involved in this process. Measures on creation of Kazakh military formations were arranged by Alash-Orda. There were national divisions of Red Army.

The printed bodies of the leaders of national liberation movement conducted propagation about protection of national interests of Kazakh people. In ideological work between Bolsheviks and representatives of "Alash-Ordi" the contradictions extremely became aggravated.

The newspapers in the areas of Soviet actions were "Bulletin of labour people in Semirechensk" (Verny, 1918, June 21) - in Kazakh language - "Zhetysu enbekshi halik muhbiri" (later Komek), " News of regional executive committee of Soviet peasants, workers, Kirghiz (Kazakh), Red Army deputies " (Urda, 1918, November 18) - "Iaitskaia pravda" (1919, February 1) - "Kpacnyi Ural" (1920, March) called people for strengthening the Red Army, struggle against White Army. On the pages of the newspapers there were directive materials of the YIII-th congress of Party. The new sections and headings of Bolshevik editions were appearing on the pages. There were posters and slogans on pages "Votes of Semirechia" (1919, June 28), calling for protection of interests of revolution.

New Bolshevik's printed editions were forming in the different areas of Kazakhstans "Iaitskoi pravda", "Duristik zholi ". "Povstanets" (Kustanai, 1919, September 30) - " Red steppe " (1920, January). A banner for struggle and work " (Semipalatinsk, 1919, December 2) - " The truth of the steppe " (1920, December 21). " Kasakh language " (Semipalatinsk, 1919, December 4). "News of Pavlodar rev-com" (1919, December)" Red Pavlodar " (1920, March 11). "Bolshevik" (1920 ., November 2). "The World of labour" (Pertopavlosk 1919, December 5). News of Ust-Komenogorsk district revolutionary committee" (Ust-Komenogorsk , 1920, January). " The Soviet authority " (1920, August). " The Red bulletin" (molinsk, 1920).
On ideological front also there was a struggle for minds and moods of the readers. The editions conducted active propagation of the Soviet principles of a management and hostel.
After the establishment of the Soviet authority the periodic press as well as all spheres of public life of society were subordinated to party principles. The total management of press was carried out in all parts of ideological work. The editions get the uniform system. Subject and problematic of performance also were exposed to unification. The main theme of printed materials becames the decisions of party congresses on strengthening positions of Soviets and struggle against the external and internal enemies of communism.
There were military editions as "News of Kirghiz military-registration on military businesses" (Urda, 1919, in Kazakh and Russian languages), " The Truth" - newspaper of political department of Aktyubinsk front.
There were the first republican editions in connection with formation of z. SSR. They were the newspapers "Ushkin" - the body of the military rev-committee (Orenburg, 1919, December 17) - predecessor of the republican party newspaper " The Soviet Kasakhatan", "News of Kirghiz territory" (Orenburg, 1920, January 1) - predecessor of the "Kazakhstan truth", "Red youth " - the first republican Soviet youth newspaper" (Orenburg, 1919, July), youth newspapers and magazines of Kazakhstan - " Young strugger" (Uralsk), "Young steppe-man "(Akmolinsk), " Young proletary" (Verny), the first republican youth editions in Kazakh language. "Zhas kairat " (Tashkent, 1921, March 22 -fore-runner of the " Leninshil zhas " - body of the CK LKSM in Kazakhstan. The newspaper "Erten " (Orenburg, 1922, November), magazine " Zhas kanat" - body of the regional committee RKSM (Orenburg, 1923, November).

In that period, dependence of the periodic editions on party influence became even stronger. The newspapers and magazines were serving means of ideological formation of Marx-Leninism theory.

The propagation of Lenin's co-operative plan, communistic education of workers had been conducting. The press of Kazakhstan supported Lenin's appeal to communistic party.

With assignment of F.I.Goloshiokin there came, known in a history of Kazakhstan the period of "Small October in Kazakhstan".

In a periodic press of that period the essence and basic purpose "of Small October" was opened. The advance against Alash intelligentsia and their persecution in the newspapers were strengthening. The repressive measures against the leaders of movement Alash had been accepting.

The press was involved in "struggle"  for liquidation of large agriculture, violent translation of Kazakh peasants to settled way of life. The newspapers and the magazines covered this process as improvement of cultural condition of life of Kazakh society. There was an active propagation on pages of republican mass media for transition to farming economy, the methods, forms and rates of collectivisation were covered in the newspapers. Disintegration of traditional structure of economy resulted to protest of national mass against violent collectivisation, uprising in 1929-1931.in Kazakhstan. The reason and the driving force and course of these disturbances in Kasakhatan was presented as action of enemies against revolutionary gains of the Soviets.

The policy of industrialisation of Kazakhstan had the special place. Illumination of a course of industrialisation in the republican press, disputes and the theoretical discussions about ways and methods of industrialisation presented an objective picture of extremes and fault of a management of the republic.

Objective estimation by . Chokaia, S. sfendiarova, S. Sadvokasova and other politics of management of KazSSR on industrialisation were presented on the pages of editions as nationalistic, hostile to the Soviet.
The new editions had started their work by the decision of Secretary CK RKR from the 2-nd March , 1925 about condition of Kazakh press . They were magazines "The new school" (1925., August - then re-named as "Kazakhstan school"), "Aiel tendigi" (July 1925 - then "The woman of Kazakhstan".

Year by year the role of parties in the management of a press was strengthening. According to the decision of org-bureau of CK RKP about press in Kazakhstan (1925, October 23) for strengthening the position of parties in management of a press created an independent press department in the Territory Committee of the party.
The leaders of the Kazakh intelligentsia . Ryskulova, S. Asfendiarova, S. Sadvakasova, S. Hodzhanova, ZH. ynbaeva etc. aspired to realise national interests within the framework of the Soviet policy. However it led to unsuccessful result. These problems were widely covered on pages of the republican press. The characteristic of a class-party principle in the decision of a national question and the essence of the Super Power are lightened in this course. Three political groups under the decision of a national question were planned within the framework of the Soviet regime in the republic. The press reflects the policy of realisation of "balance of forces " between different political groups in Kazakhstan. On pages of the newspapers and magazines the policy of encouragement of national nihilism had been carring on. After defeating the leaders of "lash-rdi" the struggle against ideological enemies started to proceed. S.Sadvakasova, S.Hodzhanova, .ynbaeva and others joined to the camp of the Bolshevik's press, being guided by the party decrees
The press widely covered the achievement of the Soviet authority both in the field of culture and science. The contradictions and problems refer to as temporary and quite soluble. The press propagandised transition of Kazakh language from Arabian alphabet to Latin and then - in subsequent - to Cyrillic as correct decision of party committee. The press explained appeals of .Baitursinova and his followers against the change of the alphabet as unreasonable. There was a total suppression of national bases of culture. The socialist realism in culture and art became the main idea. The press had been propagandising creative activity of the writers, composers . , . , . , . , . , . . The struggle from political sphere on pages of press against "bourgeois nationalism"  was transferred in sphere of culture.

The press had become a pioneer of movement for cleanliness of ideological sights of a society. It is quite possible to look after the course of mass reprisal in 1937-1938, its scales, and tragical consequences according to the materials of the newspapers and magazines.
. Chokai-uli - founder of political activity of emigration. His magazine "Iash Turkistan", book "Turkistan under the authority of Soviets " gave the bright characteristic of the communistic policy in national republics, opened the colonial essence.

The following theme of the lecture is "Mass media at the beginning of war against fascist invaders "The task of a press and radio was illumination of process of harmonious military economy, process of transformation of Kazakhstan into a front arsenal and illumination of patriotic initiatives of workers.

During war there were front newspapers in Kazakh language. The foremen of Kazakhstan publicism acted on the pages of the newspapers. Radio and the press conducted exchange of messages between front and rear.
In the period after war the press and radio of the republic covered a course of restoration of a national economy and the complex problems of mutual relation with the foreign capitalist countries.
The role of the press grew in propagation of ideas of proletarian internationalism, Soviet life-style. Broadcastings in the republic became the basic megaphone in propagation of socialist construction, "communistic education" of the workers.

The process of further expansion the struggle against bourgeois-national sights in the literature, art and science were proceeding on pages of press. The theme of newspaper performances became the book "History of Kazakh SSR from the most ancient times to present days" (Asfendiarova.1943.) It was written by . B. Behmahanova, . I. Satpaeva, B. S. Suleimenova etc. There was coming an ideological advance against the epos productions of the " feudal - bai elite" "Er-Sain", "Shora-batir", "blandy - batir" etc . The heritage of akynov of the period "Zar- Zaman" was exposed to criticism.

Press and radio in the period of " temporary thaw" (1956-1964 ) dethroned the cult of the person, its consequence. The system of mass media and propagation of Kazakhstan was formed. The republican and local TV began their work. There was a constant slogan  to catch up and overtake America!" on the pages of newspapers. The new forms of work with letters of the workers were put forward, the cultural - mass work started to take place.

The first congress of Union of the journalists of Kazakhstan was held. Its purpose and the tasks were concrete and clear. The journalism was called for serving interests of a political management of the republic.
The process of socialist competitions had been covering for the first time in the press, radio and on TV.
Mass media in the period of the crisis "of the advanced socialism" (1965-1985) had distinctive feature. Mass media played a great role in formation of communistic outlook. Thus other forms of public life were completely denied as bourgeois, capitalist etc. Deepening the contradictions in cultural life, the role of mass media as apologist of the Soviet image of life became great. Propaganda and struggle against bourgeois narrow-mindedness was the basic subjects of external policy of mass media.

Mass media reorganisation (1985-1991) was armed with publicity, pluralism of opinions. In economy the vague measures on achievement of economic independence were accepted.

The great importance in mass media got questions on illumination "white spots" of a domestic history. Official rehabilitation of many people subjected to repression, beginning from the representatives of "Alash-Ordi" were published on pages of the newspapers and magazines. The policy of the stagnant period are exposed to criticism. The December events of 1986 in the central press have received a unilateral estimation.
The large number of new periodic editions are publishing since occurrence of new political parties, movements.
    


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2001-2002 .

UNESCO chair of KazNU 2001-2002