Mass communication Faculty of journalism of KazNU UNESCO chair of KazNU News of faculty of journalism of KazNU


Representation
of UNESCO in Kazakhstan
  

Faculty of
journalism of the
Kazakh national
university named
after al-Farabi

CHAPTER I

HISTORY OF
KAZAKHSTAN'S
JOURNALISM

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Saken NURBEKOV,
c.p.s., the senior lecturer of History of journalism chair
[nsaken2001@mail.ru]

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OCCURRENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF
KAZAKH PERIODIC PRESS
in the second half of the XIX-th -
beginning of the XX -th centuries.


Long years the history of Kazakhstan's journalism remained insufficiently explored and many publicists of former time, especial in the period of Stalin's reprisal with the pasted label of nationalist, pan-Truism, pan-Islamism, were under interdiction. The Soviet ideological machine did not admit public to their works.
Today the ideas of the spiritual leaders Alash-Ordi are the large scientific contribution to development of political though of Kazakhstan's society and also a spring of theory of journalism for the present generation.
The journalism of sovereign Kazakhstan has long-standing original history and tradition of the continuity.
The purpose of the given course is acquaintance with creativity of the publicists, who were at the sources of journalism of Kazakhstan, and also give deep and all-round representation about the importance and necessity of their spiritual creative heritage. It is rather difficult to understand and trace back the development of the theory of a subject, without knowledge of history, as only on the basis of history it is possible to come to the certain result.

The journalism of the Soviet period has the original tendency. National richness of content of analysing publications has remained in a shadow during that period under the pressure of communistic ideology. Therefore the given period is considered in the light of the requirements of history of journalism of the sovereign independent State, where the research and objective display of a spiritual heritage of people, who has been securing independence for centuries are put in the first.

The course " History of Kazakh journalism " begins with a publicistic heritage of ancestors of Kazakh journalism: Abai, .Valihanov, I.ltinsarin. It is undoubtedly that their enlightening creativity was herald of the new phenomenon in the life of Kazakh society - occurrence of journalism in their native language. The first newspaper in Kasakh language was " Tukistan ualaiatinin ". It had been publishing from 1870 to 1882. This edition was the appendix to " Turkistan vedomocti " - the official body of Turkistan general - governorship. It had been issuing four times per week. Two press-releases in Kazakh and two - in Uzbek languages. The newspaper was called for expressing tsar's interests. However on its pages there were articles, correspondences, notes about social - political problems of Kazakh society, about the literature, art of the local inhabitants of Kazakhstan.

The newspaper " Turkistan vedomosti had been publishing " in Tashkent for 48 years since 1870. The purpose of this newspaper was studying the territory, according to the recommendation remark of Turkistan general - governor .P. Kauphman. Tsarism was interested in research of minerals, ethnography, internal social-political, economic life of the local inhabitants , in order to carry out subsequent policy of assimilation and transformation of Kazakhstan into a cheap raw adjunct of empire.

The newspaper " Dala ualaiatinin " - appendix to "kmolinsk regional vedomosti " had been publishing in Orenburg from 1888 to 1902 Since 1894 the newspaper had been printing in Kazakh language under the former name, and in Russian renamed to " Kirghiz steppe newspaper ". Eshmuhamed Ablaihanov, Dinmuhamed Sultangasin, Rahimzhan Duisenbaev were the editorial board of this newspaper. The newspaper published the orders, decrees of imperial government, local management. The edition consisted of official and informal parts. In the second part the reader could find articles, information notes about internal life of Kazakh people. The plenty of materials were devoted to literary productions of writers, akynov. The newspaper strips were given to performances by Potanina G. N., Iadrintseva N. M., Chermak L. K. The large merit of the edition that it has brought up large pleiad of writers. The outstanding Kazakh poets - enlighteners, publicists, folklores upeev M. Z., dikov A., Bbazhanov K., Divaev A. etc. wrote their articles for the first time on its pages.

The first Marx's editions appeared in the beginning of 1990 with aggravation of social - political life of Kazakh society. Lenin's "Spark", "Forward" "Prolitary", "Social-democrat" and other printed editions were proclamation of a new direction in political life of Kazakh people. The leaflets - proclamations with obvious expression of anti-colonial mood of the population had been distributing.

The occurrence of the newspapers "Kazakh" (1907), "Serke", (1907) "Urals" (1907) testifies about political activity of Kazakh intelligentsia. Information about revolution in 1905-1907 in the central part of Russia had found place in these editions. Transmigration policy of Tsarism, aggravation of contradictions in Kazakh auyls, appeals for disobedience to authorities were the main theme of the newspapers of that period. The article by Dulatova M. had symbolical meaning, it was appeal to Kazakh public, and his speech was about violent colonisation policy of Tsarism and appeal to struggle for the rights. The important meaning had the open letter on behalf of Kazakh workers to authorities about a difficult situation and lawlessness administered by the imperial officials. The materials about work of the1st and 2nd State Duma, performance of Kazakh deputation are the large contribution to development of political culture of Kazakh people.

Occurrence of new attributes of political unification of colonial peoples as " Muslim movement " and its subsequent strengthening were the main subjects of anti-colonial direction newspapers and magazines.
There are complete anti-governmental performances in the first trade-union printed body in Kazakhstan - magazine - " Labour life " (Semipalatinsk, 1907). The first party legal newspaper "Steppe newspaper " (Petropavlosk, 1907) was published under the management of Kuibisheva V. V.

Kazakh democratic press arose in the years of liberation movement. The newspaper "Kazakhstan" (1911-1913.) is body of progressive intelligentsia, its edition had all-democratic and enlightening direction. The urgent problems of public, economic and cultural life of Kazakhstan were covered in this newspaper.
Publicism of Buirina E., Karasheva G., Karataeva B., Mendesheva S. had the large importance in development of democratic ideas.

The political newspaper "Truth" had been distributing in the territory of Kazakhstan from 1912 to 1914 St. Petersburg. The materials devoted to problems of Kazakhstan had been publishing in the newspaper. The correspondent of "Truth" in Kazakhstan was Bolganbaev Z.

"Aikap" was the first political magazine published in 1911-1915. The founder and the editor of the magazine was . Serapin (1872-1929) and the main employees of the edition were oraigirov S., Seifullin S., ubeev S., Donentaev S. etc. The complete histories of participation of Kazakh deputies in work of Muslim fractions, the work of the State Duma were covered in the magazine. The role of the magazine was great in development of Kazakh public idea, literature and publicism on the basis of enlightening traditions. The magazine had been conducting the polemic with the newspaper "Kazakh" publishing under the edition Baitursynova A. and Dulatoca M. for the next years. Two points of view on agrarian-economic and sociological problems were planned. And then these two editions conducted polemic about a choice of a way of the further development, about tactics and strategy of struggle for freedom and independence.

The important mark in the annals of Kazakh journalism is occurrence of the political newspaper "Kazakh" (1913-1918), being the political centre of advanced Kazakh intelligentsia. The newspaper, expressing interests of Kazakh people, was their tribune, defender of their rights. The period of revolution in 1916 objectively covered all process and called people for rallying and unity. Just the newspaper was in the greater measure the organiser of political work of progressive national intelligentsia, the result of it was the development of tactics and strategy of struggle for independence. The newspaper had party orientation. The national party "Alash Orda" was formed under the influence of ideas of the newspaper "Kazakh". The newspaper actively covered the congress of Muslim in Russia, where people subjected to Tsarism put forward not only religious requirements, but also political.

The relation of colonial people strengthened the oppression of Tsarism during the First World War. Unreasonable requisitions, outrage of the imperial officials, stratification of Kazakh society, destruction of lifestyle, ruin and impoverishment of mass of people conducted to social intensity in a society. Everywhere there were facts of disobedience and open performances against the orders of the local officials. These facts had found reflection both in the national editions and in the hand-written magazine "Sadak" in Ufa (1915-1918), issued under the edition ailina B. and lepbergenova Z., newspaper "Sary-Arka" (1917-1918.), " Birlik tui ". (1917-1918.), under the supervision of Chokaia M., " Zhas Azamat " -the body of Kazakh youth (1918-1919 .), edited by . mergenovym, "Alash" (1916-1917) under the supervision ., gusovyh ., "Uranium" and political magazine "bai".

These editions had appeared on the wave of rise of national liberating movement. The events of the beginning October revolution were covered on the pages of the editions. There were messages about the course of work of party "Alash-Orda". The materials of the editions carried anti-colonial character. Expressed the ideas of national sovereignty. Supported the ideas of party "Alash-Orda", its program performance was for a national autonomy and construction the government with all its attributes of authority.
    


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2001-2002 .

UNESCO chair of KazNU 2001-2002